Crowns, Veneers, Inlays, Flow Injection Technique – prosthetic restorations on natural teeth

Crowns, Veneers, Inlays, Flow Injection – prosthetic restorations on natural teeth

Thanks to the significant development of dentistry, many different solutions are now offered that allow the reconstruction of damaged natural teeth. Currently available adhesive techniques enable the most economical preparation of healthy tooth tissues, without the need for excessive grinding to ensure adequate retention of the prosthetic restoration.

Popular prosthetic techniques include crowns, veneers, endocrowns, inlay/onlay/overlay restorations and the flow injection method, and each of them has its own unique features, manufacturing process and purpose, depending on the quantity and quality of the remaining hard tooth tissues.

Dental Crowns

A prosthetic crown is a permanent solution used in cases where the tooth is severely damaged, when it is necessary to raise the occlusion in cases of diseases leading to qualitative or quantitative enamel defects, such as: Molar-incisor hypomineralization, fluorosis or Amelogenesis imperfecta. A crown is a kind of “cap” that completely covers the tooth, restoring its original shape, size and function. Currently, they are made mainly of zirconium, which is completely biocompatible, durable and highly aesthetic.

Dental Crown

The process of making a crown begins with removing damaged tissue. In the case of reconstruction in the aesthetic anterior section, the preparation is preceded by the preparation of a special digital design of the final crowns, which is then applied to the patient’s teeth using a special light-cured material in order to try on and make changes to the shape or color of the work. Once the design is accepted by the patient, the dentist starts tooth preparation. After completely cleaning the cavities, our specialist grinds the tooth to give it the appropriate shape. Then, the doctor scans the prepared tooth with an intraoral scanner, and the virtual tooth impression created in this way, along with intraoral photos with a shade guide, goes directly to the prosthetic laboratory. There, based on the scans, the crown obtains its target shape, and thanks to the photos taken with a shade guide, its aesthetics are adapted to the remaining teeth. While the prosthetic reconstruction is being performed, our specialist protects the prepared tooth until the next visit. The crown made by the laboratory goes back to our office, and the dentist uses the most effective adhesive materials to attach it to the previously prepared tooth.

The advantages of crowns are their strength, durability and natural appearance. The crowns are resistant to chewing forces and ensure optimal chewing function, and the high aesthetic properties of zirconium oxide make them difficult to distinguish from natural teeth.

intraoral scanner


A veneer is a thin sheet of porcelain that is permanently cemented to the front surface of the tooth – the facial surface. It is a prosthetic solution that is the least invasive – it requires the least interference in the healthy tooth tissue. Veneers are often used to improve the aesthetics of the smile, e.g. in the case of minor orthodontic defects such as diastema, discolored teeth and teeth of inappropriate shape or size.

Before tooth preparation begins, an intraoral scan is taken. Thanks to specialized dental software and the experience of our specialists, the appropriate shape of veneers is designed in digital form. Then, thanks to special quickly polymerizing materials, this design is transferred to the patient’s teeth, enabling a “try-on” of the target restorations (so-called Mock-up ) and making appropriate corrections regarding shape or color. After the patient accepts the design, our specialist begins the preparation process.

The process of making veneers begins with sparing preparation of the front surface of the tooth, thanks to which the appropriate shape is given and the roughened enamel is prepared to create an appropriate adhesive connection with the target prosthetic work. Then – just like in the case of making crowns – an intraoral scan and photos with a shade guide are taken, which are then sent to the prosthetic laboratory, and the prepared teeth are protected until the next visit. After the veneer is made, it is permanently fixed to the prepared tooth using special adhesive systems that guarantee its permanent attachment to the natural tooth.

Veneers have many advantages, including excellent appearance, natural fit to the rest of the teeth, durability and resistance to discoloration. They are also relatively non-invasive and require minimal tooth preparation.


An endocrown is a prosthetic solution used in the case of severely damaged teeth after root canal treatment. It is a uniform overlay made of porcelain or a hybrid (composite + ceramic), which completely reconstructs the tooth crown along with the partially reduced root part of the tooth, enabling strengthening of weakened structures and protection against further contamination.

The process of making an endocrown begins after root canal treatment with appropriate preparation of the remaining tooth tissues. Then, the doctor takes an intraoral scan and photos with a shade guide, which are sent to the prosthetic laboratory. The tooth is temporarily protected until the next visit. The finished endocrown is then cemented onto the previously prepared tooth.


Endocrowns are very durable and resistant to the forces occurring during chewing, and are currently recommended for use in every tooth after root canal treatment. Due to the fact that they are made as uniform overlays from one portion of material, they are much more durable than standard fillings and significantly extend the life of root canal treated teeth by protecting them against atypical caries, chips or cracks in the remaining tooth walls.

Inlays, onlays, overlays

Overlay restorations are used in the case of deep and extensive carious lesions, in which, after complete cleaning of the carious tissues, too little healthy tooth tissue remains. As in the case of endocrowns, the onlays are made of a uniform material, which makes them resistant to the occlusal forces acting on them, which, when used, are distributed evenly on the tooth and significantly extend the life of damaged teeth. They reproduce the natural shape and function of the tooth, and thanks to their high aesthetics, it is difficult to see the border between the reconstruction and the remaining healthy tooth structures.

Inlay, onlay, overlay

Restorative overlays can be divided depending on the extent of the defect they are supposed to recreate:

  • Inlay – recreates the chewing surface
  • Onlay – recreates the chewing surface and cusps
  • Overlay – recreates the chewing surface, cusps and part of the side surfaces of the tooth (most often contact surfaces)

Teeth qualified for treatment with onlays are most often teeth severely damaged by caries. Our specialists first completely remove carious tissue. Then, the remaining tooth tissues are ground to provide them with an appropriate retaining shape for future reconstruction. The tooth prepared in this way is scanned using an intraoral scanner and together with photos with a shade guide, the scans are sent to the prosthetic laboratory where an appropriate type of overlay will be prepared, adapted to the defect present in our tooth. Onlays are mainly made of composite, hybrid (composite + zirconium) or zirconium. Then, the onlay is fixed using adhesive cements in a previously prepared place on the tooth. This ensures excellent tightness, eliminating the possibility of bacterial microleakage between the layers of the material, which occurs when traditional light-cured composite fillings are used in deep carious lesions.

Flow Injection Technique

Flow injection is an innovative method of aesthetic reconstruction of natural teeth. It allows the reconstruction of damaged tooth surfaces and giving them a completely new color and shape, while being a minimally invasive method in relation to the tooth’s own tissues. These teeth most often do not require grinding, but only appropriate preparation of the enamel surface to ensure a better adhesive bond with the highly aesthetic light-cured material used.

Flow injection

Flow injection is most often used in cases of:

  • Pathological tooth wear
  • Tooth reconstrucion after orthodontic treatment
  • Aesthetic smile change

The entire process of tooth reconstruction using the Flow Injection method begins with an examination and taking an intraoral scan along with photos with a digital camera. Then, using specialized DSD – Digital Smile Design software, the dentist creates the target design of the teeth, changing their shape, color and size, adapting them to the patient`s face. Each of them is individually tailored to the patient – just as our patients are unique, their smiles are just as special and unique. The project prepared in this way is tried on in the office on the patient’s own teeth thanks to the use of special temporary materials. At this stage, the patient can submit comments and, together with our specialist, make corrections to the project.

Digital Smile Design

After accepting the design, the dentist starts preparing the enamel for Flow Injection reconstruction. Then, thanks to the use of liquid, highly aesthetic composite materials and a splint prepared by the prosthetic laboratory, the teeth are shaped into a new shape in accordance with the previously prepared design.


The Flow Injection treatment at Warsaw Dental Academy is short and much cheaper compared to traditional porcelain veneers or crowns. However, please remember that the effects of the Flow Injection treatment are less durable than in the case of the above-mentioned porcelain restorations. The composite material is less susceptible to abrasion, less esthetic and may change its color during time.

Prosthetic treatment in Warsaw Dental Academy


In our office, we offer a wide range of dental services, including the mentioned methods of reconstruction on the patient’s own teeth. Our specialists constantly improve their qualifications by participating in numerous courses, where they acquire up-to-date knowledge of minimally invasive dentistry in the field of prosthetics. We work with the best prosthetic laboratories, which, just like us, focus on an individual approach to each of our patients. As a result, we provide them with new smiles, tailored specifically to their faces, which, apart from high aesthetics, are also characterized by excellent tightness and durability, making them stay with them for many years.

A healthy and beautiful smile is an element that significantly improves the quality and comfort of life. Don’t wait and schedule a prosthetic consultation at the Warsaw Dental Academy today, where our specialist will propose a type of prosthetic reconstruction individually tailored to your needs!